enjoyed it I think school is boring I think making this game was boring Reliability (Cronbachs ) Reliability (Cronbachs ) Effort I do my best at school I did my best while. Cronbach alphas for the current study were as follows: conscientiousness (0.84 neuroticism (0.83 extroversion (0.77 agreeableness (0.64 and openness to experience (0.72). Thirdly, OConner and Paunonen ( 2007 ) suggested that the effects of intelligence and personality would depend on how academic achievement was operationalised and therefore recommended that multiple measures of academic achievement be used. A reference to the Dutch language version can be found in Hoekstra. We used the observed predictor and criterion data of the 137 participants and entered the data as manifest variables. OConner and Paunonen summarized the research across 23 studies and reported an average correlation of r.24 between conscientiousness and academic achievement. I think I was good in making/playing this gamea.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.
Forthcoming in Jürgen Backhaus (ed.) Encyclopedia of Law and Economics.
Distinguishing between extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.
Big Five personality All students completed the short version of the NEO, the NEO Five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) (Costa and McCrae 1992 ). 2006 and conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness to experience accounted for an additional 12 of the variance in grades on two statistics examinations at the university level (Furnham and Chamorro-Premuzic 2004 ). In the following examples, the first item is from the conscientiousness scale, whereas the second item is from the intrinsic motivation scale: (a) I am a productive person who always finishes what I start/I always finish whatever I start. The internal reliability ( as measured in the current study was.79. Teachers used theoretical presentations, acting, role playing, and videos to help students master the skills and considerable social interaction was required between the students and the teacher. Results show a negative correlation for fluid intelligence and a positive correlation for crystallized intelligence, both in line with international research. GPA GPA was the weighted, cumulative average of grades across all subject matter during the students entire tenure at school. The Big Five traits together registered incremental validities, over and above intelligence, of R.24 for GPA and R.25 for time to graduation. Thesis Each student submitted a 30-page thesis towards the end of the curriculum in which practical business problems and solutions were discussed, often stemming from internship experiences. The data came from four cohorts of students. Moreover, academic achievement was measured in six different ways in addition to GPA. Studies report modest correlations, mostly negative, but in some cases positive.