required in order to teach at the University. The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject ( venia legendi ). Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with.S./B.A.
All doctoral programs are research-oriented. Students independently) without an additional instructor/teaching certificate/license, such as Privatdozent. A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Examples include the Doctor of Science (.) and Doctor of Letters (tt.) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in Scandinavia. The higher doctorates are stated to be "A higher level of award which is not covered by the qualifications frameworks.