by the concentration and composition of dissolved ions which are generally governed by lithology of subsurface, velocity and quantity of groundwater flow, nature of geochemical reactions, solubility of salts and various anthropogenic activities (Tamma. Ion exchange occurring between the groundwater and its host environment are indicated by chloro alkaline indices, CAI 1 and CAI 2 as suggested by Schoeller ( 1977 ). The majority of samples fall in rock dominance zone followed by few samples from shallow region felling in evaporation dominance zone according to Gibbs ( 1970 ) plot indicating that the lithology plays a significant role in controlling the overall quality of groundwater apart from. When sodium content is high in the irrigation water, it is adsorbed by the clay particles of the soil. All mathematical calculations like ranges, means and standard deviations were calculated for physico-parameters using Excel 2007 (Microsoft Office). 2007, 2009 ) but higher than those reported in Jalandhar and Kapurthala districts of Punjab (Purushothman. Based on TH classification of groundwater (Table 5 ) almost all the samples were found to be very hard and unfit for drinking.
7 ad located in the system. The analytical data plotted on Wilcox diagram illustrates that except few samples, most of the groundwater samples fall in excellent and good categories and can be used for irrigation. Sulfates were measured by turbidimetric method as BaSO4 while phosphates were determined by stannous chloride method.
The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative.
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Wide variation in electrical conductivity is observed with minimum value of 563.80 S/cm and maximum value of 7007 S/cm with an average value of 2016.36 S/cm during summer season. Transient groundwater flow is analogous to the diffusion of heat in a solid, therefore some solutions to hydrological problems have been adapted from heat transfer aditionally, the movement of groundwater has been studied separately from surface water, climatology, and even the chemical and microbiological aspects. The agricultural activities may be the main reason of increasing potassium content in groundwater (Sayyed and Bhosle 2011 ). ( 2009 ) while mean Mg concentration were found to be lower in this study. Chloride content was significantly and positively correlated with sulfate ( r.731) and magnesium ( r.651). The affirmative solution will be a continuous water quality monitoring program and a detailed hydrogeochemical investigation is suggested for sustainable utilization of water resources not only in the study area, but in the entire state of Punjab. Saturation index is important to determine the degree of equilibrium between water and minerals and to recognize mineral dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifers (Redwan.